Figure 9. A white-nosed
coatimundi (Nasua nasua)
on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, walking across a
horizontal liana stem. By connecting trees to other trees, lianas and other
vines create convenient pathways for animals to move through
the trees without having to descend to the ground. In
this way, vines can be considered important
ecosystem engineers of forests.
Photograph by Francis E. Putz.